Jumaat, 7 September 2012

Leech Saliva

A simple principle lies at the heart of all hirudo-miracles. During the process of feeding, leeches secrete a complex mixture of different biologically and pharmacologically active substances into the wound. Hirudin is the best known component of leech saliva. Hirudin is sometimes used to describe all active substance in leech saliva. In reality, Hirudin refers only to one specific active substance in leech salive. Components of medicinal leech saliva that exert effects in the host's body are:

1. Hirudin- Inhibits blood coagulation by binding to thrombin
2. Calin -Inhibits blood coagulation by blocking the binding of von Willebrand factor to collagen. Inhibits 3.collagen- mediated platelet aggregation 
4. Destabilase -Monomerizing activity. Dissolves fibrin. Thrombolytic effects
5. Hirustasin- Inhibits kallikrein, trypsin, chymotrypsin, neutropholic cathepsin G
6. Bdellins -Anti-inflammatory. Inhibits trypsin, plasmin, acrosin
7. Hyaluronidase- Increases interstitial viscosity. Antibiotic
8. Tryptase inhibitor -Inhibits proteolytic enzymes of host mast cells
9. Eglins- Anti-inflammatory. Inhibit the activity of alpha-chymotrypsin, chymase, substilisin, elastase, cathepsin G
10. Factor Xa inhibitor -Inhibits the activity of coagulation factor xa by forming equimolar complexes
11. Complement inhibitors- May possibly replace natural complement inhibitors if they are deficient
12. Carboxypeptidase -A inhibitors Increases the inflow of blood at the bite site
13. Histaminelike -substances Vasodilator. Increases the inflow of blood at the bite site
14. Acetylcholine -Vasodilator
15. Anesthetics -subsctance Anesthetic

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